Yes, in order to obtain CUC$ (Cuban Convertible Pesos, the currency used in Cuba) at the airport, upon entry into Cuba, exchange your currency in currency exchange kiosks as you are exiting the terminal, provided the kiosks are open. If the kiosks are not open, you can purchase CUC$ in the departure hall, just to the right of the arrival hall after you exit to the outside.
Once in Cuba, the airport, tourist hotels, banks, and CADECA bureaus can exchange currency (US and Canadian dollars, Euros, British pounds, etc.) for you. Hotels are often the most convenient place to make currency exchanges. Be sure to have proper ID (passport) on hand.
Do not accept offers to exchange currency from anyone who approaches you on the street. It is illegal and a common scam practiced all over the world to take advantage of travelers, who are unfamiliar with new currencies. This is particularly applicable, due to the dual currency system used in Cuba.
Please see the update as of December 2019 here regarding the use of U.S. dollars in Cuba.